The Shawshank Redemption (1994) is based on the Stephen King short story “Rita Hayworth and the Shawshank Redemption.” The title comes from an event within the narrative -- Andy Dufresne (played by Tim Robbins in the film) memorably places a Rita Hayworth poster in his jail cell. The poster doesn’t just remind him of the outside world and the desire of an inmate to return to a normal life; it hides the tunnel he’s spent 25 years digging with a tiny rock hammer that will lead him back to that very existence. Although the film adaptation shortens the title, Rita Hayworth remains a powerful symbol within the film, representing the beauty of hope.
25 years is a long time to chisel away at a prison wall using a tool hardly bigger than a fork, but it's a hobby that keeps Andy sane. Most people with a life sentence become comfortable with prison -- a concept the story touches on through supporting characters like Brooks (James Whitmore), who can't reacclimate himself with outside life upon release. Red observes, "These walls are funny. First you hate 'em, then you get used to 'em. Enough time passes, you get so you depend on them. That's institutionalized." But Andy keeps hope alive because of his tunnel and because of his Rita Hayworth poster disguising that dream. Hope is what distinguishes him from his fellow inmates. It's the thing that keeps him focused and prevents his lapsing into depression or pity.
Andy tells his friend, "Remember, Red, hope is a good thing, maybe the best of things, and no good thing ever dies."
You're never a prisoner if you keep hoping for the future. Hope is Andy's mission. He maintains an inner sanctuary for what life is supposed to be, evidenced in scenes like the one where he’s put in solitary confinement. Andy remarks that Mozart kept him company in the hole, stating, “That’s the beauty of music. They can’t get that from you.”
Because he knows he's an innocent man, Andy's determination to escape is not just about the result of getting out of prison; it is equally about maintaining his self-worth through commitment to the pursuit of his freedom. He doesn’t allow the flawed, corrupt system to break him down; instead, he breaks down the system when he busts out by exposing the illicit business practices of the prison’s warden. He doesn’t let hope become something abstract that disappears over the years. Instead, he makes it literal, chiseling it out of the wall one hopeful chunk of concrete at a time. Andy does not allow prison to deprive him of his innate humanity, dignity and self-governance, proving that the institution can never truly master him. "Some birds are not meant to be caged," Red reflects.
Andy also finds ways to embody hope throughout the film in small physical manifestations that remind imprisoned people what it's like to be free: a bottle of beer, a funded library, some money and a note left under a tree. The last is what Andy plants to motivate Red (Morgan Freeman), who has nothing but hope left in his life after he’s finally paroled. The film’s final lines encapsulate the theme of hope, revealing the power Andy’s demeanor has on others and how his optimism enables eventual life outside the walls: “I hope I can make it across the border. I hope to see my friend and shake his hand. I hope the Pacific is as blue as it has been in my dreams. I hope.”